Biosensor Technology, 6 credits

Biosensorteknik, 6 hp

TFTB34

Main field of study

Engineering Biology Biomedical Engineering

Course level

Second cycle

Course type

Programme course

Examiner

Daniel Aili

Director of studies or equivalent

Magnus Boman

Education components

Preliminary scheduled hours: 56 h
Recommended self-study hours: 104 h

Available for exchange students

Yes
ECV = Elective / Compulsory / Voluntary
Course offered for Semester Period Timetable module Language Campus ECV
6CKEB Chemical Biology, Master of Science in Engineering (Protein Science and Technology) 8 (Spring 2022) 1 3 English Linköping C
6CTBI Engineering Biology, Master of Science in Engineering (Devices and Materials in Biomedicine) 8 (Spring 2022) 1 3 English Linköping C

Main field of study

Engineering Biology, Biomedical Engineering

Course level

Second cycle

Advancement level

A1X

Course offered for

  • Master of Science in Chemical Biology
  • Master of Science in Engineering Biology

Prerequisites

Biochemistry, General Chemistry, Basic Spectroscopy

Intended learning outcomes

The course will give insights into the complexities involved in combining biological materials such as enzymes, antibodies and DNA with optical, electrochemical and other transducers to provide practical and easy-to-use systems. In order to integrate this knowledge and to introduce the importance of intellectual property protection, students will participate in practical classes and a group project on patent litigation at the end of the course.
The overall purpose of the course is to give the student a thorough understanding of the fundamentals and applications of biosensor technology together with an appreciation of its current and future impact on society.
Following the course, the student should be able to:

  • design and construct a simple biosensor,
  • use biosensors in the laboratory
  • explain how biosensors are constructed and manufactured
  • show how biosensors can be used to solve real analytical problems
  • reflect on the patenting and commercialisation of a biosensor

Course content

This course will provide a concise overview of biosensor technology and its application in healthcare, food safety, environmental monitoring and security. The lectures and practical exercises will focus on the construction, design and manufacture of biosensors, the principal and emerging materials and components used and three case studies of key devices. Lectures and a group project will examine some pivotal biosensor patents and an example of patent litigation. The course will conclude with a consideration of commercialisation routes, ethical issues and future perspectives.
Practical exercises will focus on enzyme electrodes, bioaffinity monitoring using two examples including the BIAcore and a site visit to see the printing facilities for biosensor production in Norrköping. The group project will study a patent litigation case and will culminate in a mock court battle.
The course will cover, an introduction to biosensors, applications of biosensors, transducers and sensor systems, bioreceptors and their immobilisation, synthetic receptors and nanomaterials for biosensors, design parameters for catalytic biosensors, design of affinity biosensors, microfluidics and arrays, glucose biosensors for diabetes, surface plasmon resonance for bioaffinity monitoring, electronic noses and tongues, patenting and litigation in the field of biosensors, commercialising biosensors, ethics and future prospects.

Teaching and working methods

Lectures, practical exercises and a group assignment.

Examination

LAB1Laboratory work1 creditsU, G
UPG1Project assignment1 creditsU, G
TEN2Oral or written examination4 creditsU, 3, 4, 5
The written examination will test the ability of the student to understand different biosensor technologies and concepts together with their practical application and commercialisation. During the practical laboratory exercises the student will be expected to construct and use enzyme electrodes for glucose measurement and to learn how to operate the BiaCore system for bioaffinity monitoring. The site visit will be used to assess observation skills and inquisitiveness. The group project will test the student’s ability to work as part of a team to analyse a specific biosensor technology in detail, to present technical and commercial arguments and to individually reflect on the outcome.

Grades

Four-grade scale, LiU, U, 3, 4, 5

Other information

About teaching and examination language

The teaching language is presented in the Overview tab for each course. The examination language relates to the teaching language as follows: 

  • If teaching language is “Swedish”, the course as a whole could be given in Swedish, or partly in English. Examination language is Swedish, but parts of the examination can be in English.
  • If teaching language is “English”, the course as a whole is taught in English. Examination language is English.
  • If teaching language is “Swedish/English”, the course as a whole will be taught in English if students without prior knowledge of the Swedish language participate. Examination language is Swedish or English depending on teaching language.

Other

The course is conducted in a manner where both men's and women's experience and knowledge are made visible and developed. 

The planning and implementation of a course should correspond to the course syllabus. The course evaluation should therefore be conducted with the course syllabus as a starting point.  

If special circumstances prevail, the vice-chancellor may in a special decision specify the preconditions for temporary deviations from this course syllabus, and delegate the right to take such decisions.

Department

Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi

Course literature

YouTube Video: Biosensors: An Introduction by Anthony Turner: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KChAkSAizCw Turner, A.P.F. (2013). Biosensors: sense and sensibility. Chemical Society Reviews 42 (8), 3184-3196. OPEN ACCESS: http://xlink.rsc.org/?doi=C3CS35528D Newman, J.D. and Turner, A.P.F. (2005). Home blood glucose biosensors: a commercial perspective. Biosensors and Bioelectronics 20, 2435-2453. (available online in LiU) Handbook of Biosensors and Biochips; Robert S. Marks, Christopher R. Lowe, David C. Cullen, Howard H. Weetall, Isao Karube, (2007) Wiley (available as e-book in LiU) Chemical sensors and biosensors; Brian R. Eggins (2002) Wiley (available in LiU library) US Patent: 5,436,161 - Matrix coating for sensing surfaces capable of selective biomolecular interactions, to be used in biosensor systems. Biacore AB.: http://www.google.com/patents/US5436161?dq=Patent+US+5,436,161&hl=en&sa=X&ei=HSf5UZjuLYLPtAbzm4GQDg&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAA Reviews and articles in the Elsevier journal Biosensors and Bioelectronics (available online in LiU): www.elsevier.com/locate/bios Biosensors and Bioelectronics Centre website: www.ifm.liu.se/biosensors PDF files of lectures and accompanying material.
Code Name Scope Grading scale
LAB1 Laboratory work 1 credits U, G
UPG1 Project assignment 1 credits U, G
TEN2 Oral or written examination 4 credits U, 3, 4, 5
The written examination will test the ability of the student to understand different biosensor technologies and concepts together with their practical application and commercialisation. During the practical laboratory exercises the student will be expected to construct and use enzyme electrodes for glucose measurement and to learn how to operate the BiaCore system for bioaffinity monitoring. The site visit will be used to assess observation skills and inquisitiveness. The group project will test the student’s ability to work as part of a team to analyse a specific biosensor technology in detail, to present technical and commercial arguments and to individually reflect on the outcome.

Course syllabus

A syllabus must be established for each course. The syllabus specifies the aim and contents of the course, and the prior knowledge that a student must have in order to be able to benefit from the course.

Timetabling

Courses are timetabled after a decision has been made for this course concerning its assignment to a timetable module. 

Interruption in and deregistration from a course

The LiU decision, Guidelines concerning confirmation of participation in education (Dnr LiU-2020-02256), states that interruptions in study are to be recorded in Ladok. Thus, all students who do not participate in a course for which they have registered must record the interruption, such that the registration on the course can be removed. Deregistration from or interrupting a course is carried out using a web-based form: https://www.lith.liu.se/for-studenter/kurskomplettering?l=en

Cancelled courses and changes to the course syllabus

Courses with few participants (fewer than 10) may be cancelled or organised in a manner that differs from that stated in the course syllabus. The Dean is to deliberate and decide whether a course is to be cancelled or changed from the course syllabus. 

Guidelines relating to examinations and examiners 

For details, see Guidelines for education and examination for first-cycle and second-cycle education at Linköping University, Dnr LiU-2020-04501  (http://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/VisaBeslut/917592).

An examiner must be employed as a teacher at LiU according to the LiU Regulations for Appointments, Dnr LiU-2021-01204 (https://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/VisaBeslut/622784). For courses in second-cycle, the following teachers can be appointed as examiner: Professor (including Adjunct and Visiting Professor), Associate Professor (including Adjunct), Senior Lecturer (including Adjunct and Visiting Senior Lecturer), Research Fellow, or Postdoc. For courses in first-cycle, Assistant Lecturer (including Adjunct and Visiting Assistant Lecturer) can also be appointed as examiner in addition to those listed for second-cycle courses. In exceptional cases, a Part-time Lecturer can also be appointed as an examiner at both first- and second cycle, see Delegation of authority for the Board of Faculty of Science and Engineering.

Forms of examination

Principles for examination

Written and oral examinations and digital and computer-based examinations are held at least three times a year: once immediately after the end of the course, once in August, and once (usually) in one of the re-examination periods. Examinations held at other times are to follow a decision of the faculty programme board.

Principles for examination scheduling for courses that follow the study periods:

  • courses given in VT1 are examined for the first time in March, with re-examination in June and August
  • courses given in VT2 are examined for the first time in May, with re-examination in August and October
  • courses given in HT1 are examined for the first time in October, with re-examination in January and August
  • courses given in HT2 are examined for the first time in January, with re-examination in March and in August.

The examination schedule is based on the structure of timetable modules, but there may be deviations from this, mainly in the case of courses that are studied and examined for several programmes and in lower grades (i.e. 1 and 2). 

Examinations for courses that the faculty programme board has decided are to be held in alternate years are held three times during the school year in which the course is given according to the principles stated above.

Examinations for courses that are cancelled or rescheduled such that they are not given in one or several years are held three times during the year that immediately follows the course, with examination scheduling that corresponds to the scheduling that was in force before the course was cancelled or rescheduled.

When a course, or a written examination (TEN, DIT, DAT), is given for the last time, the regular examination and two re-examinations will be offered. Thereafter, examinations are phased out by offering three examinations during the following academic year at the same times as the examinations in any substitute course. If there is no substitute course, three examinations will be offered during re-examination periods during the following academic year. Other examination times are decided by the faculty programme board. In all cases above, the examination is also offered one more time during the academic year after the following, unless the faculty programme board decides otherwise. In total, 6 re-examinations are offered, of which 2 are regular re-examinations. In the examination registration system, the examinations given for the penultimate time and the last time are denoted. 

If a course is given during several periods of the year (for programmes, or on different occasions for different programmes) the faculty programme board or boards determine together the scheduling and frequency of re-examination occasions.

Retakes of other forms of examination

Regulations concerning retakes of other forms of examination than written examinations and digital and computer-based examinations are given in the LiU guidelines for examinations and examiners, http://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/VisaBeslut/917592.

Course closure

For Decision on Routines for Administration of the Discontinuation of Educational Programs, Freestanding Courses and Courses in Programs, see DNR LiU-2021-04782. After a decision on closure and after the end of the discontinuation period, the students are referred to a replacement course (or similar) according to information in the course syllabus or programme syllabus. If a student has passed some part/parts of a closed program course but not all, and there is an at least partially replacing course, an assessment of crediting can be made. Any crediting of course components is made by the examiner.

Registration for examination

In order to take an written, digital or computer-based examination, registration in advance is mandatory, see decision in the university’s rule book https://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/VisaBeslut/622682. An unregistered student can thus not be offered a place. The registration is done at the Student Portal or in the LiU-app during the registration period. The registration period opens 30 days before the date of the examination and closes 10 days before the date of the examination. Candidates are informed of the location of the examination by email, four days in advance. 

Code of conduct for students during examinations

Details are given in a decision in the university’s rule book: http://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/VisaBeslut/622682.

Retakes for higher grade

Students at the Institute of Technology at LiU have the right to retake written examinations and digital and computer-based examinations in an attempt to achieve a higher grade. This is valid for all examination components with code “TEN”, “DIT” and "DAT". The same right may not be exercised for other examination components, unless otherwise specified in the course syllabus.

A retake is not possible on courses that are included in an issued degree diploma. 

Grades

The grades that are preferably to be used are Fail (U), Pass (3), Pass not without distinction (4) and Pass with distinction (5). 

  • Grades U, 3, 4, 5 are to be awarded for courses that have written or digital examinations.
  • Grades Fail (U) and Pass (G) may be awarded for courses with a large degree of practical components such as laboratory work, project work and group work.
  • Grades Fail (U) and Pass (G) are to be used for degree projects and other independent work.

Examination components

The following examination components and associated module codes are used at the Faculty of Science and Engineering:

  • Grades U, 3, 4, 5 are to be awarded for written examinations (TEN) and digital examinations (DIT).
  • Examination components for which the grades Fail (U) and Pass (G) may be awarded are laboratory work (LAB), project work (PRA), preparatory written examination (KTR), digital preparatory written examination (DIK), oral examination (MUN), computer-based examination (DAT), home assignment (HEM), and assignment (UPG).
  • Students receive grades either Fail (U) or Pass (G) for other examination components in which the examination criteria are satisfied principally through active attendance such as tutorial group (BAS) or examination item (MOM).
  • Grades Fail (U) and Pass (G) are to be used for the examination components Opposition (OPPO) and Attendance at thesis presentation (AUSK) (i.e. part of the degree project).

In general, the following applies:

  • Mandatory course components must be scored and given a module code.
  • Examination components that are not scored, cannot be mandatory. Hence, it is voluntary to participate in these examinations, and the voluntariness must be clearly stated. Additionally, if there are any associated conditions to the examination component, these must be clearly stated as well.
  • For courses with more than one examination component with grades U,3,4,5, it shall be clearly stated how the final grade is weighted.

For mandatory components, the following applies (in accordance with the LiU Guidelines for education and examination for first-cycle and second-cycle education at Linköping University, http://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/VisaBeslut/917592): 

  • If special circumstances prevail, and if it is possible with consideration of the nature of the compulsory component, the examiner may decide to replace the compulsory component with another equivalent component.

For possibilities to alternative forms of examinations, the following applies (in accordance with the LiU Guidelines for education and examination for first-cycle and second-cycle education at Linköping University, http://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/VisaBeslut/917592): 

  • If the LiU coordinator for students with disabilities has granted a student the right to an adapted examination for a written examination in an examination hall, the student has the right to it.
  • If the coordinator has recommended for the student an adapted examination or alternative form of examination, the examiner may grant this if the examiner assesses that it is possible, based on consideration of the course objectives.
  • An examiner may also decide that an adapted examination or alternative form of examination if the examiner assessed that special circumstances prevail, and the examiner assesses that it is possible while maintaing the objectives of the course.

Reporting of examination results

The examination results for a student are reported at the relevant department.

Plagiarism

For examinations that involve the writing of reports, in cases in which it can be assumed that the student has had access to other sources (such as during project work, writing essays, etc.), the material submitted must be prepared in accordance with principles for acceptable practice when referring to sources (references or quotations for which the source is specified) when the text, images, ideas, data, etc. of other people are used. It is also to be made clear whether the author has reused his or her own text, images, ideas, data, etc. from previous examinations, such as degree projects, project reports, etc. (this is sometimes known as “self-plagiarism”).

A failure to specify such sources may be regarded as attempted deception during examination.

Attempts to cheat

In the event of a suspected attempt by a student to cheat during an examination, or when study performance is to be assessed as specified in Chapter 10 of the Higher Education Ordinance, the examiner is to report this to the disciplinary board of the university. Possible consequences for the student are suspension from study and a formal warning. More information is available at https://www.student.liu.se/studenttjanster/lagar-regler-rattigheter?l=en.

Regulations (apply to LiU in its entirety)

The university is a government agency whose operations are regulated by legislation and ordinances, which include the Higher Education Act and the Higher Education Ordinance. In addition to legislation and ordinances, operations are subject to several policy documents. The Linköping University rule book collects currently valid decisions of a regulatory nature taken by the university board, the vice-chancellor and faculty/department boards.

LiU’s rule book for education at first-cycle and second-cycle levels is available at http://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/Innehall/Utbildning_pa_grund-_och_avancerad_niva

YouTube Video: Biosensors: An Introduction by Anthony Turner: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KChAkSAizCw Turner, A.P.F. (2013). Biosensors: sense and sensibility. Chemical Society Reviews 42 (8), 3184-3196. OPEN ACCESS: http://xlink.rsc.org/?doi=C3CS35528D Newman, J.D. and Turner, A.P.F. (2005). Home blood glucose biosensors: a commercial perspective. Biosensors and Bioelectronics 20, 2435-2453. (available online in LiU) Handbook of Biosensors and Biochips; Robert S. Marks, Christopher R. Lowe, David C. Cullen, Howard H. Weetall, Isao Karube, (2007) Wiley (available as e-book in LiU) Chemical sensors and biosensors; Brian R. Eggins (2002) Wiley (available in LiU library) US Patent: 5,436,161 - Matrix coating for sensing surfaces capable of selective biomolecular interactions, to be used in biosensor systems. Biacore AB.: http://www.google.com/patents/US5436161?dq=Patent+US+5,436,161&hl=en&sa=X&ei=HSf5UZjuLYLPtAbzm4GQDg&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAA Reviews and articles in the Elsevier journal Biosensors and Bioelectronics (available online in LiU): www.elsevier.com/locate/bios Biosensors and Bioelectronics Centre website: www.ifm.liu.se/biosensors PDF files of lectures and accompanying material.

Note: The course matrix might contain more information in Swedish.

I = Introduce, U = Teach, A = Utilize
I U A Modules Comment
1. DISCIPLINARY KNOWLEDGE AND REASONING
1.1 Knowledge of underlying mathematics and science (G1X level)
X
LAB1
TEN2
UPG1

                            
1.2 Fundamental engineering knowledge (G1X level)
X
LAB1
TEN2
UPG1

                            
1.3 Further knowledge, methods, and tools in one or several subjects in engineering or natural science (G2X level)
X
LAB1
TEN2
UPG1

                            
1.4 Advanced knowledge, methods, and tools in one or several subjects in engineering or natural sciences (A1X level)

                            
1.5 Insight into current research and development work

                            
2. PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL SKILLS AND ATTRIBUTES
2.1 Analytical reasoning and problem solving
X
UPG1

                            
2.2 Experimentation, investigation, and knowledge discovery
X
LAB1

                            
2.3 System thinking
X

                            
2.4 Attitudes, thought, and learning
X
UPG1

                            
2.5 Ethics, equity, and other responsibilities

                            
3. INTERPERSONAL SKILLS: TEAMWORK AND COMMUNICATION
3.1 Teamwork
X
LAB1
UPG1

                            
3.2 Communications
X
LAB1
UPG1

                            
3.3 Communication in foreign languages
X
LAB1
TEN2
UPG1

                            
4. CONCEIVING, DESIGNING, IMPLEMENTING AND OPERATING SYSTEMS IN THE ENTERPRISE, SOCIETAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT
4.1 External, societal, and environmental context

                            
4.2 Enterprise and business context
X
TEN2
UPG1

                            
4.3 Conceiving, system engineering and management
X

                            
4.4 Designing
X

                            
4.5 Implementing
X

                            
4.6 Operating

                            
5. PLANNING, EXECUTION AND PRESENTATION OF RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS WITH RESPECT TO SCIENTIFIC AND SOCIETAL NEEDS AND REQUIREMENTS
5.1 Societal conditions, including economic, social, and ecological aspects of sustainable development for knowledge development

                            
5.2 Economic conditions for knowledge development

                            
5.3 Identification of needs, structuring and planning of research or development projects

                            
5.4 Execution of research or development projects

                            
5.5 Presentation and evaluation of research or development projects

                            

This tab contains public material from the course room in Lisam. The information published here is not legally binding, such material can be found under the other tabs on this page.

There are no files available for this course.