Humans in Cybersecurity, 6 credits

Cybersäkerhet och människan, 6 hp


Main field of study

Computer Science

Course level

First cycle

Course type

Programme course


Björn Johansson

Director of studies or equivalent

Jalal Maleki

Education components

Preliminary scheduled hours: 54 h
Recommended self-study hours: 106 h

Available for exchange students

ECV = Elective / Compulsory / Voluntary
Course offered for Semester Period Timetable module Language Campus ECV
6CDDD Computer Science and Engineering, Master of Science in Engineering 7 (Autumn 2024) 2 4 English Linköping, Valla E
6CDDD Computer Science and Engineering, Master of Science in Engineering (Secure Systems) 7 (Autumn 2024) 2 4 English Linköping, Valla E
6CMJU Computer Science and Software Engineering, Master of Science in Engineering 7 (Autumn 2024) 2 4 English Linköping, Valla E
6CMJU Computer Science and Software Engineering, Master of Science in Engineering (Secure Systems) 7 (Autumn 2024) 2 4 English Linköping, Valla E
6MCYS Cybersecurity, Master's Programme 1 (Autumn 2024) 2 4 English Linköping, Valla C
6CITE Information Technology, Master of Science in Engineering 7 (Autumn 2024) 2 4 English Linköping, Valla E
6CITE Information Technology, Master of Science in Engineering (Secure Systems) 7 (Autumn 2024) 2 4 English Linköping, Valla E

Main field of study

Computer Science

Course level

First cycle

Advancement level


Course offered for

  • Master's Programme in Cybersecurity
  • Master of Science in Computer Science and Engineering
  • Master of Science in Information Technology
  • Master of Science in Computer Science and Software Engineering


BSc in Computer Science, Computer Engineering, Information Technology or similar.

Intended learning outcomes

Technical systems for cyber security are developed, managed and managed by people. Human cognitive ability, understanding of, and approach to cyber security is therefore crucial in dealing with various threats. The course gives an introduction to human cognition, human factors, humans as part of socio-technical systems, social engineering, and risk perception.

After completing the course, the student should be able to:

  1. explain central concepts and models in human cognition
  2. explain how humans contribute to, and limit, security in socio-technical systems
  3. Describe basic models of risk perception
  4. Explain how technically secure systems can be manipulated through social engineering

Course content

Introduction to human cognition, central concepts related to human factors, socio-technical systems, risk perception, and social engineering. Scenario-based application of the human role in socio-technical security systems. Human factors as a research and development area in cyber security.


Teaching and working methods

The course is given in the form of lectures, seminars and scenario-based exercises.


UPG1Active participation in seminars2 creditsU, G
UPG2Active participation in scenario-based excercises2 creditsU, G
TEN1Written examination2 creditsU, 3, 4, 5


Four-grade scale, LiU, U, 3, 4, 5

Other information

About teaching and examination language

The teaching language is presented in the Overview tab for each course. The examination language relates to the teaching language as follows: 

  • If teaching language is “Swedish”, the course as a whole could be given in Swedish, or partly in English. Examination language is Swedish, but parts of the examination can be in English.
  • If teaching language is “English”, the course as a whole is taught in English. Examination language is English.
  • If teaching language is “Swedish/English”, the course as a whole will be taught in English if students without prior knowledge of the Swedish language participate. Examination language is Swedish or English depending on teaching language.


The course is conducted in such a way that there are equal opportunities with regard to sex, transgender identity or expression, ethnicity, religion or other belief, disability, sexual orientation and age.

The planning and implementation of a course should correspond to the course syllabus. The course evaluation should therefore be conducted with the course syllabus as a starting point. 

The course is campus-based at the location specified for the course, unless otherwise stated under “Teaching and working methods”. Please note, in a campus-based course occasional remote sessions could be included.  


Institutionen för datavetenskap

Course literature


  • To be decided.

Code Name Scope Grading scale
UPG1 Active participation in seminars 2 credits U, G
UPG2 Active participation in scenario-based excercises 2 credits U, G
TEN1 Written examination 2 credits U, 3, 4, 5

Structure and organisation of study programmes

The contents and design of the programmes are to be continuously revised such that new knowledge is integrated into courses and specialisations. Within one programme, several study specialisations or profiles may be available. The identities of the study specialisations or profiles and the regulations governing how these may be selected are given in the syllabus and curriculum for the particular field of study and programmes.

The structure and organisation of the programmes are to follow specified criteria that are summarised in the syllabus for each programme.

  • The syllabus defines the aims of the study programme.
  • The curriculum, which constitutes one part of the syllabus for the field of study, gives details of the terms in which the various courses have been timetabled, and their scheduling through the academic year.
  • The course syllabus specifies, among other things, the aim and contents of the course, and the prior knowledge that a student must have, in addition to the admission requirements for the programme, in order to be able to benefit from the course.

Qualification requirements

The qualification requirements specified in the Higher Education Ordinance 2007 apply to students admitted after 1 July 2007. A student who has completed components of a programme after 1 July 2007 has the right to be assessed with respect to the qualification requirements specified by the Higher Education Ordinance 2007. In addition, local regulations laid down by the faculty boards and university board apply,, Utbildning på grund- och avancerad nivå/Examina.

Higher Education Act Chapter 1, Section 8:

First-cycle courses and study programmes are to develop:

  • the ability to make independent and critical assessments
  • the ability to identify, formulate and solve problems autonomously, and
  • the preparedness to deal with changes in working life.

In addition to knowledge and skills in their field of study, students shall develop the ability to:

  • gather and interpret information at a scholarly level
  • stay abreast of the development of knowledge, and
  • communicate their knowledge to others, including those who lack specialist knowledge in the field.

Qualifications within a study programme

Qualification requirements that are specific to a study programme are given in the syllabus for that programme.

Admission requirements and matriculation and postponement of matriculation

A person who has been accepted for a study programme is to start their studies (matriculate) in the term that is specified in the decision about admission. The date and location of the compulsory matriculation procedure will be communicated to those admitted to the first term of the programme.

Regulations concerning admission requirements, matriculation and postponement of matriculation have been laid down in the admission regulations for Linköping University, Dnr LiU-2022-01200 (

Admission to a later part of a programme

Admission to a part of a study programme is used here to refer to admission with the purpose of completing the programme and taking a degree. Admission to a later part of a programme may take place only if sufficient resources and space on the programme are available. Furthermore, the applicant must satisfy the entry requirements for the relevant term of the programme, as specified in Dnr LiU-2022-00174 (

Interruption in studies

Notification of an interruption in studies is to be made through a web form Forms. If such a notification is not made and if the student does not do a course registration during the first term during which the interruption is to take place, the interruption will be considered to be a withdrawal. An interruption in studies must cover a complete term, and notification of interruptions can be given for a maximum of two consecutive terms. Notification of resumption of studies is to take place at the course registration for the term that follows the interruption. 

A student who is taking an interruption in studies may during this period retake examinations. The student is responsible that registration for courses is carried out at the correct times in preparation for the resumption of studies.

Withdrawal from a study programme

A student who wishes to withdraw from a study programme must notify the study guidance counsellor. A student who leaves the studies without giving notification of an interruption in study and who fails to register on a course for the immediately subsequent term is considered to have withdrawn. A student who has withdrawn may return to the study programme if a vacancy is available that is not required for students returning after an interruption in study, and not required for students who are changing their location of study and/or study programme.

Courses within a study programme

The curriculum for the various years of a study programme specify which courses are mandatory (m), elective (e) and voluntary (v). The course specified as voluntary (labelled with “v”) in the programme syllabus are assessed solely as voluntary courses, and credits from these may not contribute to the requirements for a degree.

Take courses from another study programme or third-cycle courses

Students taking a master’s programme in engineering can apply to take courses given in Term 7 and later terms of the programme from all engineering master’s programmes. Admission to courses at Term 7 or higher requires the possession of at least 150 credits within the programme to which the student has been admitted.

Admission to third-cycle courses requires studies at Master's level, i.e. year 4-5 or admitted to a Master's programme. Information can be obtained from the relevant director of advanced studies. 

Admission is granted to the extent that resources allow, provided that places are available on the course. When selecting a course from another programme or third-cycle courses, the admission requirements specified in the course syllabus should be satisfied.

For credit transfer of the courses, see credit transfer below.

Credit transfer of courses outside the programme curriculum

To include courses that are not specified in the program curriculum (for example single-subject courses or courses from another study programme) in a degree, the student need to apply to and be granted this from the faculty programme board. The credits must be completed at the time of application.

Registration for programme courses

Registration for courses that are given as part of a study programme must be made during the specified period, which has been preliminarily set to 1-10 April for the autumn term, and 1-10 October for the spring term. Information about course registration is published on the Study councellors webpages or in programme rooms, sent to students by email, and disseminated at scheduled information meetings.

Changes in the program curriculum

In case of changes in the program curriculum, study planning in consultation with the study guidance counsellor may be required in individual cases, see section Study planning.

Study planning

Students who require support in planning their continued studies can contact the study guidance counsellor of the programme. Study planning involves the student and the study guidance counsellor together drawing up an individual plan for studies during the subsequent term. The individual plan may allow the student to deviate from the general curriculum.

Completed first-cycle courses are a precondition for successful studies at more advanced levels. For this reason, study planning is based on giving priority to courses from earlier years of study that have not been completed. If further capacity is available, new courses may be taken.

Study planning takes place on a regular basis if the student:

  • does not satisfy the requirements for progression to later terms. In order for a student to be able to participate in courses from later years in such cases, a decision of exemption is required.
  • does not satisfy the requirements for starting a degree project.

Other situations in which study planning may be required:

  • A student has fallen behind during the early part of a study programme and has failed to complete several courses.
  • A student has not satisfied the entry requirements for a degree project before term 6 of an engineering degree.
  • Changes in the program curriculum.
  • A student has applied for admission to a later part of a programme.
  • Studies have been carried out abroad.
  • A study programme is to be resumed after an interruption.

In these cases the study guidance counsellor supports the student in planning the continued studies, also in situations in which the student can register for the relevant courses without the need for a special decision for the continued studies.

Part of education abroad

Students can exchange study at LiTH for study at an institute of higher education abroad, and/or work on a degree project abroad.

In the event that study (courses) at LiTH are exchanged for study abroad, the faculty programme director is responsible for a decision about a preliminary individual study plan, which is to be drawn up in advance. After the exchange, the student apply to credit completed courses from the exchange into their degree. The guideline for credit assessment in an exchange is that the courses should be in line with the program's orientation. 

Regulations for entry requirements, ranking and nomination for study abroad through LiTH’s exchange agreements, see Dnr LiU-2022-04416 (, and for the compulsory study abroad period within Ii (Industrial Engineering and Management – International) and Yi (Applied Physics and Electrical Engineering – International), see Dnr LiU-2022-04415 (

Course syllabus

A syllabus must be established for each course. The syllabus specifies the aim and contents of the course, and the prior knowledge that a student must have in order to be able to benefit from the course.


Program courses are timetabled after a decision has been made for this course concerning its assignment to a timetable module. Single subject courses can be timetabled at other times.

Interruption in and deregistration from a course

The LiU decision, Guidelines concerning confirmation of participation in education, Dnr LiU-2020-02256 (, states that interruptions in study are to be recorded in Ladok. Thus, all students who do not participate in a course for which they have registered are therefore obliged to report the interruption so that this can be noted in Ladok. Deregistration from or interrupting a course is carried out using a Web-based form.

Cancelled courses and changes to the course syllabus

Courses with few participants (fewer than 10) may be cancelled or organised in a manner that differs from that stated in the course syllabus. The Dean is to deliberate and decide whether a course is to be cancelled or changed from the course syllabus. For single subject courses, the cancellation must be done before students are admitted to the course (in accordance with LiUs regulation Dnr LiU-2022-01200,

Guidelines relating to examinations and examiners 

For details, see Guidelines for education and examination for first-cycle and second-cycle education at Linköping University, Dnr LiU-2023-00379  (

An examiner must be employed as a teacher at LiU according to the LiU Regulations for Appointments, Dnr LiU-2022-04445 ( For courses in second-cycle, the following teachers can be appointed as examiner: Professor (including Adjunct and Visiting Professor), Associate Professor (including Adjunct), Senior Lecturer (including Adjunct and Visiting Senior Lecturer), Research Fellow, or Postdoc. For courses in first-cycle, Assistant Lecturer (including Adjunct and Visiting Assistant Lecturer) can also be appointed as examiner in addition to those listed for second-cycle courses. In exceptional cases, a Part-time Lecturer can also be appointed as an examiner at both first- and second cycle, see Delegation of authority for the Board of Faculty of Science and Engineering.

Forms of examination

Principles for examination

Written and oral examinations and digital and computer-based examinations are held at least three times a year: once immediately after the end of the course, once in August, and once (usually) in one of the re-examination periods. Examinations held at other times are to follow a decision of the faculty programme board.

Principles for examination scheduling for courses that follow the study periods:

  • courses given in VT1 are examined for the first time in March, with re-examination in June and August
  • courses given in VT2 are examined for the first time in May, with re-examination in August and January
  • courses given in HT1 are examined for the first time in October, with re-examination in January and August
  • courses given in HT2 are examined for the first time in January, with re-examination in March and in August.

The examination schedule is based on the structure of timetable modules, but there may be deviations from this, mainly in the case of courses that are studied and examined for several programmes and in lower grades (i.e. 1 and 2). 

Examinations for courses that the faculty programme board has decided are to be held in alternate years are held three times during the school year in which the course is given according to the principles stated above.

Examinations for courses that are cancelled or rescheduled such that they are not given in one or several years are held three times during the year that immediately follows the course, with examination scheduling that corresponds to the scheduling that was in force before the course was cancelled or rescheduled.

When a course, or a written or oral examination (TEN, DIT, DAT, MUN), is given for the last time, the regular examination and two re-examinations will be offered. Thereafter, examinations are phased out by offering three examinations during the following academic year at the same times as the examinations in any substitute course. If there is no substitute course, three examinations will be offered during re-examination periods during the following academic year. Other examination times are decided by the faculty programme board. In all cases above, the examination is also offered one more time during the academic year after the following, unless the faculty programme board decides otherwise. In total, 6 re-examinations are offered, of which 2 are regular re-examinations. In the examination registration system, the examinations given for the penultimate time and the last time are denoted. 

If a course is given during several periods of the year (for programmes, or on different occasions for different programmes) the faculty programme board or boards determine together the scheduling and frequency of re-examination occasions.

For single subject courses, written and oral examinations can be held at other times.  

Retakes of other forms of examination

Regulations concerning retakes of other forms of examination than written examinations and digital and computer-based examinations are given in the LiU guidelines for examinations and examiners, Dnr LiU-2023-00379 (

Course closure

For Decision on Routines for Administration of the Discontinuation of Educational Programs, Freestanding Courses and Courses in Programs, see Dnr LiU-2021-04782 ( After a decision on closure and after the end of the discontinuation period, the students are referred to a replacement course (or similar) according to information in the course syllabus or programme syllabus. If a student has passed some part/parts of a closed program course but not all, and there is an at least partially replacing course, an assessment of crediting can be made. Any crediting of course components is made by the examiner.

Registration for examination

In order to take an written, digital or computer-based examination, registration in advance is mandatory, see decision in the university’s rule book Dnr LiU-2020-04559 ( An unregistered student can thus not be offered a place. The registration is done at the Student Portal or in the LiU-app during the registration period. The registration period opens 30 days before the date of the examination and closes 10 days before the date of the examination. Candidates are informed of the location of the examination by email, four days in advance. 

Code of conduct for students during examinations

Details are given in a decision in the university’s rule book, Dnr LiU-2020-04559 (

Retakes for higher grade

Students at the Institute of Technology at LiU have the right to retake written examinations and digital and computer-based examinations in an attempt to achieve a higher grade. This is valid for all examination components with code “TEN”, “DIT” and "DAT". The same right may not be exercised for other examination components, unless otherwise specified in the course syllabus.

A retake is not possible on courses that are included in an issued degree diploma. 


The grades that are preferably to be used are Fail (U), Pass (3), Pass not without distinction (4) and Pass with distinction (5). 

  • Grades U, 3, 4, 5 are to be awarded for courses that have written or digital examinations.
  • Grades Fail (U) and Pass (G) may be awarded for courses with a large degree of practical components such as laboratory work, project work and group work.
  • Grades Fail (U) and Pass (G) are to be used for degree projects and other independent work.

Examination components

The following examination components and associated module codes are used at the Faculty of Science and Engineering:

  • Grades U, 3, 4, 5 are to be awarded for written examinations (TEN) and digital examinations (DIT).
  • Examination components for which the grades Fail (U) and Pass (G) may be awarded are laboratory work (LAB), project work (PRA), preparatory written examination (KTR), digital preparatory written examination (DIK), oral examination (MUN), computer-based examination (DAT), home assignment (HEM), and assignment (UPG).
  • Students receive grades either Fail (U) or Pass (G) for other examination components in which the examination criteria are satisfied principally through active attendance such as tutorial group (BAS) or examination item (MOM).
  • Grades Fail (U) and Pass (G) are to be used for the examination components Opposition (OPPO) and Attendance at thesis presentation (AUSK) (i.e. part of the degree project).

In general, the following applies:

  • Mandatory course components must be scored and given a module code.
  • Examination components that are not scored, cannot be mandatory. Hence, it is voluntary to participate in these examinations, and the voluntariness must be clearly stated. Additionally, if there are any associated conditions to the examination component, these must be clearly stated as well.
  • For courses with more than one examination component with grades U,3,4,5, it shall be clearly stated how the final grade is weighted.

For mandatory components, the following applies (in accordance with the LiU Guidelines for education and examination for first-cycle and second-cycle education at Linköping University, Dnr LiU-2023-00379 

  • If special circumstances prevail, and if it is possible with consideration of the nature of the compulsory component, the examiner may decide to replace the compulsory component with another equivalent component.

For possibilities to alternative forms of examinations, the following applies (in accordance with the LiU Guidelines for education and examination for first-cycle and second-cycle education at Linköping University, Dnr LiU-2023-00379 

  • If the LiU coordinator for students with disabilities has granted a student the right to an adapted examination for a written examination in an examination hall, the student has the right to it.
  • If the coordinator has recommended for the student an adapted examination or alternative form of examination, the examiner may grant this if the examiner assesses that it is possible, based on consideration of the course objectives.
  • An examiner may also decide that an adapted examination or alternative form of examination if the examiner assessed that special circumstances prevail, and the examiner assesses that it is possible while maintaing the objectives of the course.

Reporting of examination results

The examination results for a student are reported at the relevant department.


For examinations that involve the writing of reports, in cases in which it can be assumed that the student has had access to other sources (such as during project work, writing essays, etc.), the material submitted must be prepared in accordance with principles for acceptable practice when referring to sources (references or quotations for which the source is specified) when the text, images, ideas, data, etc. of other people are used. It is also to be made clear whether the author has reused his or her own text, images, ideas, data, etc. from previous examinations, such as degree projects, project reports, etc. (this is sometimes known as “self-plagiarism”).

A failure to specify such sources may be regarded as attempted deception during examination.

Attempts to cheat

In the event of a suspected attempt by a student to cheat during an examination, or when study performance is to be assessed as specified in Chapter 10 of the Higher Education Ordinance, the examiner is to report this to the disciplinary board of the university. Possible consequences for the student are suspension from study and a formal warning. More information is available at Cheating, deception and plagiarism.

Linköping University has also produced a guide for teachers and students' use of generative AI in education (Dnr LiU-2023-02660). As a student, you are always expected to gain knowledge of what applies to each course (including the degree project). In general, clarity to where and how generative AI has been used is important.  

Regulations (apply to LiU in its entirety)

The university is a government agency whose operations are regulated by legislation and ordinances, which include the Higher Education Act and the Higher Education Ordinance. In addition to legislation and ordinances, operations are subject to several policy documents. The Linköping University rule book collects currently valid decisions of a regulatory nature taken by the university board, the vice-chancellor and faculty/department boards.

LiU’s rule book for education at first-cycle and second-cycle levels is available at


To be decided.

Note: The course matrix might contain more information in Swedish.

I = Introduce, U = Teach, A = Utilize
I U A Modules Comment
1.1 Knowledge of underlying mathematics and science (G1X level)

1.2 Fundamental engineering knowledge (G1X level)

1.3 Further knowledge, methods, and tools in one or several subjects in engineering or natural science (G2X level)

1.4 Advanced knowledge, methods, and tools in one or several subjects in engineering or natural sciences (A1X level)

1.5 Insight into current research and development work

2.1 Analytical reasoning and problem solving

2.2 Experimentation, investigation, and knowledge discovery

2.3 System thinking

2.4 Attitudes, thought, and learning

2.5 Ethics, equity, and other responsibilities

3.1 Teamwork

3.2 Communications

3.3 Communication in foreign languages

4.1 External, societal, and environmental context

4.2 Enterprise and business context

4.3 Conceiving, system engineering and management

4.4 Designing

4.5 Implementing

4.6 Operating

5.1 Societal conditions, including economic, social, and ecological aspects of sustainable development for knowledge development

5.2 Economic conditions for knowledge development

5.3 Identification of needs, structuring and planning of research or development projects

5.4 Execution of research or development projects

5.5 Presentation and evaluation of research or development projects


This tab contains public material from the course room in Lisam. The information published here is not legally binding, such material can be found under the other tabs on this page.

There are no files available for this course.