Electro Hydraulic Systems, 6 credits

Elektrohydrauliska system, 6 hp


Main field of study

Mechanical Engineering

Course level

Second cycle

Course type

Programme course


Magnus Sethson

Director of studies or equivalent

David Lundström

Education components

Preliminary scheduled hours: 48 h
Recommended self-study hours: 112 h

Available for exchange students

ECV = Elective / Compulsory / Voluntary
Course offered for Semester Period Timetable module Language Campus ECV
6CMMM Mechanical Engineering, Master of Science in Engineering 9 (Autumn 2022) 1 3 Swedish/English Linköping E
6CMMM Mechanical Engineering, Master of Science in Engineering (Mechatronics) 9 (Autumn 2022) 1 3 Swedish/English Linköping E
6MMEC Mechanical Engineering, Master's Programme 3 (Autumn 2022) 1 3 Swedish/English Linköping E
6MMEC Mechanical Engineering, Master's Programme (Mechatronics) 3 (Autumn 2022) 1 3 Swedish/English Linköping C

Main field of study

Mechanical Engineering

Course level

Second cycle

Advancement level


Course offered for

  • Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering
  • Master's Programme in Mechanical Engineering


Basic knowledge in fluid power technology, electro machinery, mechanics, dynamical systems, control engineering, programming, electronics, electrical systems and simulation technology.

The elaborative work requires individual preparations and initiativs.  Computer class work benefits from practical experience in use of programming tools, preferable using object oriented syntax. A number of general computational tools may be used such as 3D CAD, Mathematica, MATLAB/Simulink and programming editors.

Intended learning outcomes

The course aims for an increased knowledge about modern multi-axis systems where all subdomains of mechatronics are vital parts such as mechanics, electronics, computer technology and software. The machines studied uses mainly fluid power technology and electro machinery as energy transformation principles but others may occur.

After the course the student should be able to describe in detail the sub-components of a system and their function, integration and control thereof within systems like cranes, fork lift trucks, construction machinery and automated workshop machinery. Both mathematical expressions and simulation models should be fluently used when describing the separate components dynamics in a system. One should acquire a good understanding for the mechanical and control challenges that are related to temperature, wear, vibrations and safety. In parallel to a deepened and widened understanding for the systems functions even verification and measurements on such systems should be studied. The overall goal of the course is that the student should be able to design a controller for a machine that perform a predefined task in a safe way despite its non-real characteristics.

After the course each student should:

  • understand the relations between motion, force, magnetic flow density and electric current in an electromechanical design inducing its limits.
  • be able to handle, evaluate and analyse simulation results from mathematical models of mechatronic systems.
  • be able to create smaller program code snippets implementing control or/and reference signals for control systems.
  • be able to evaluate multi-axis systems based on characteristic performance measures like position error, energy consumption and stability. Both at system and detailed levels.
  • be able to individually describe for a mechatronic design through both digital media and written report.

After the completion of the course the student should have a good and general understanding of the application of the modern computer technology in studies, design and handling of machinery around us and in industry. 

Course content

The course makes primarily use of simulation technology for understanding the phenomena, opposing requirements and challenges that exist within modern multi-axis mechanical systems. Simulation technology is the main method for evaluation of different technical solutions throughout the course, where the student will be challenged with several different problems typical for modern machine design. Example of that include tolerances in parameters, gap, friction, bi-stable systems, dither motions, stiffens variations in actuators and signal delays in digital systems. Load balancing in multi-axis systems with only one power source is an example of how energy efficiency is studied. Based on earlier courses in mechatronics the knowledge about sensors is further extended about measuring mechanical quantities. A major part of the course focus on  integrated analysis of system solutions. Lectures follows the information propagation through mechatronic systems, from sensor to actuator.

Teaching and working methods

The teaching is focused around design tasks with supervised computer class lessons. A minor number of lectures, lessons and elaborative events are also included. Individual work is a most dominant in the course with a special focus on the engineering responsibility for ones own designs and solutions. Throughout the course several major homework design tasks are carried out particularly addressing the individual responsibilities regarding design and analysis of mechatronic systems. Lectures and lessons are focused around handed out research papers.


UPG1Individual written assignment3 creditsU, 3, 4, 5
LAB2Laboratory work1 creditsU, G
UPG3Assignments2 creditsU, G


Four-grade scale, LiU, U, 3, 4, 5

Other information

Supplementary courses

The course may be scheduled in close relation to TMPM06 - Project Course Advanced - Mechatronics.

About teaching and examination language

The teaching language is presented in the Overview tab for each course. The examination language relates to the teaching language as follows: 

  • If teaching language is “Swedish”, the course as a whole could be given in Swedish, or partly in English. Examination language is Swedish, but parts of the examination can be in English.
  • If teaching language is “English”, the course as a whole is taught in English. Examination language is English.
  • If teaching language is “Swedish/English”, the course as a whole will be taught in English if students without prior knowledge of the Swedish language participate. Examination language is Swedish or English depending on teaching language.


The course is conducted in a manner where both men's and women's experience and knowledge are made visible and developed. 

The planning and implementation of a course should correspond to the course syllabus. The course evaluation should therefore be conducted with the course syllabus as a starting point.  

If special circumstances prevail, the vice-chancellor may in a special decision specify the preconditions for temporary deviations from this course syllabus, and delegate the right to take such decisions.


Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling

Course literature

Regulary literature



Additional literature


  • Clarence W. de Silva, CRC Press, Mechatronics, An Integrated Approach
    ISBN: 0-84931274-4
  • William Bolton, Pearson, Mechatronics, Electronic control systems in Mechanical and Electrical Engineering 6
    ISBN: 978-1-292-07668-3
Code Name Scope Grading scale
UPG1 Individual written assignment 3 credits U, 3, 4, 5
LAB2 Laboratory work 1 credits U, G
UPG3 Assignments 2 credits U, G

Course syllabus

A syllabus must be established for each course. The syllabus specifies the aim and contents of the course, and the prior knowledge that a student must have in order to be able to benefit from the course.


Courses are timetabled after a decision has been made for this course concerning its assignment to a timetable module. 

Interruption in and deregistration from a course

The LiU decision, Guidelines concerning confirmation of participation in education (Dnr LiU-2020-02256), states that interruptions in study are to be recorded in Ladok. Thus, all students who do not participate in a course for which they have registered must record the interruption, such that the registration on the course can be removed. Deregistration from or interrupting a course is carried out using a web-based form: https://www.lith.liu.se/for-studenter/kurskomplettering?l=en

Cancelled courses and changes to the course syllabus

Courses with few participants (fewer than 10) may be cancelled or organised in a manner that differs from that stated in the course syllabus. The Dean is to deliberate and decide whether a course is to be cancelled or changed from the course syllabus. 

Guidelines relating to examinations and examiners 

For details, see Guidelines for education and examination for first-cycle and second-cycle education at Linköping University, Dnr LiU-2020-04501  (http://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/VisaBeslut/917592).

An examiner must be employed as a teacher at LiU according to the LiU Regulations for Appointments, Dnr LiU-2021-01204 (https://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/VisaBeslut/622784). For courses in second-cycle, the following teachers can be appointed as examiner: Professor (including Adjunct and Visiting Professor), Associate Professor (including Adjunct), Senior Lecturer (including Adjunct and Visiting Senior Lecturer), Research Fellow, or Postdoc. For courses in first-cycle, Assistant Lecturer (including Adjunct and Visiting Assistant Lecturer) can also be appointed as examiner in addition to those listed for second-cycle courses. In exceptional cases, a Part-time Lecturer can also be appointed as an examiner at both first- and second cycle, see Delegation of authority for the Board of Faculty of Science and Engineering.

Forms of examination

Principles for examination

Written and oral examinations and digital and computer-based examinations are held at least three times a year: once immediately after the end of the course, once in August, and once (usually) in one of the re-examination periods. Examinations held at other times are to follow a decision of the faculty programme board.

Principles for examination scheduling for courses that follow the study periods:

  • courses given in VT1 are examined for the first time in March, with re-examination in June and August
  • courses given in VT2 are examined for the first time in May, with re-examination in August and October
  • courses given in HT1 are examined for the first time in October, with re-examination in January and August
  • courses given in HT2 are examined for the first time in January, with re-examination in March and in August.

The examination schedule is based on the structure of timetable modules, but there may be deviations from this, mainly in the case of courses that are studied and examined for several programmes and in lower grades (i.e. 1 and 2). 

Examinations for courses that the faculty programme board has decided are to be held in alternate years are held three times during the school year in which the course is given according to the principles stated above.

Examinations for courses that are cancelled or rescheduled such that they are not given in one or several years are held three times during the year that immediately follows the course, with examination scheduling that corresponds to the scheduling that was in force before the course was cancelled or rescheduled.

When a course, or a written examination (TEN, DIT, DAT), is given for the last time, the regular examination and two re-examinations will be offered. Thereafter, examinations are phased out by offering three examinations during the following academic year at the same times as the examinations in any substitute course. If there is no substitute course, three examinations will be offered during re-examination periods during the following academic year. Other examination times are decided by the faculty programme board. In all cases above, the examination is also offered one more time during the academic year after the following, unless the faculty programme board decides otherwise. In total, 6 re-examinations are offered, of which 2 are regular re-examinations. In the examination registration system, the examinations given for the penultimate time and the last time are denoted. 

If a course is given during several periods of the year (for programmes, or on different occasions for different programmes) the faculty programme board or boards determine together the scheduling and frequency of re-examination occasions.

Retakes of other forms of examination

Regulations concerning retakes of other forms of examination than written examinations and digital and computer-based examinations are given in the LiU guidelines for examinations and examiners, http://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/VisaBeslut/917592.

Course closure

For Decision on Routines for Administration of the Discontinuation of Educational Programs, Freestanding Courses and Courses in Programs, see DNR LiU-2021-04782. After a decision on closure and after the end of the discontinuation period, the students are referred to a replacement course (or similar) according to information in the course syllabus or programme syllabus. If a student has passed some part/parts of a closed program course but not all, and there is an at least partially replacing course, an assessment of crediting can be made. Any crediting of course components is made by the examiner.

Registration for examination

In order to take an written, digital or computer-based examination, registration in advance is mandatory, see decision in the university’s rule book https://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/VisaBeslut/622682. An unregistered student can thus not be offered a place. The registration is done at the Student Portal or in the LiU-app during the registration period. The registration period opens 30 days before the date of the examination and closes 10 days before the date of the examination. Candidates are informed of the location of the examination by email, four days in advance. 

Code of conduct for students during examinations

Details are given in a decision in the university’s rule book: http://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/VisaBeslut/622682.

Retakes for higher grade

Students at the Institute of Technology at LiU have the right to retake written examinations and digital and computer-based examinations in an attempt to achieve a higher grade. This is valid for all examination components with code “TEN”, “DIT” and "DAT". The same right may not be exercised for other examination components, unless otherwise specified in the course syllabus.

A retake is not possible on courses that are included in an issued degree diploma. 


The grades that are preferably to be used are Fail (U), Pass (3), Pass not without distinction (4) and Pass with distinction (5). 

  • Grades U, 3, 4, 5 are to be awarded for courses that have written or digital examinations.
  • Grades Fail (U) and Pass (G) may be awarded for courses with a large degree of practical components such as laboratory work, project work and group work.
  • Grades Fail (U) and Pass (G) are to be used for degree projects and other independent work.

Examination components

The following examination components and associated module codes are used at the Faculty of Science and Engineering:

  • Grades U, 3, 4, 5 are to be awarded for written examinations (TEN) and digital examinations (DIT).
  • Examination components for which the grades Fail (U) and Pass (G) may be awarded are laboratory work (LAB), project work (PRA), preparatory written examination (KTR), digital preparatory written examination (DIK), oral examination (MUN), computer-based examination (DAT), home assignment (HEM), and assignment (UPG).
  • Students receive grades either Fail (U) or Pass (G) for other examination components in which the examination criteria are satisfied principally through active attendance such as tutorial group (BAS) or examination item (MOM).
  • Grades Fail (U) and Pass (G) are to be used for the examination components Opposition (OPPO) and Attendance at thesis presentation (AUSK) (i.e. part of the degree project).

In general, the following applies:

  • Mandatory course components must be scored and given a module code.
  • Examination components that are not scored, cannot be mandatory. Hence, it is voluntary to participate in these examinations, and the voluntariness must be clearly stated. Additionally, if there are any associated conditions to the examination component, these must be clearly stated as well.
  • For courses with more than one examination component with grades U,3,4,5, it shall be clearly stated how the final grade is weighted.

For mandatory components, the following applies (in accordance with the LiU Guidelines for education and examination for first-cycle and second-cycle education at Linköping University, http://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/VisaBeslut/917592): 

  • If special circumstances prevail, and if it is possible with consideration of the nature of the compulsory component, the examiner may decide to replace the compulsory component with another equivalent component.

For possibilities to alternative forms of examinations, the following applies (in accordance with the LiU Guidelines for education and examination for first-cycle and second-cycle education at Linköping University, http://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/VisaBeslut/917592): 

  • If the LiU coordinator for students with disabilities has granted a student the right to an adapted examination for a written examination in an examination hall, the student has the right to it.
  • If the coordinator has recommended for the student an adapted examination or alternative form of examination, the examiner may grant this if the examiner assesses that it is possible, based on consideration of the course objectives.
  • An examiner may also decide that an adapted examination or alternative form of examination if the examiner assessed that special circumstances prevail, and the examiner assesses that it is possible while maintaing the objectives of the course.

Reporting of examination results

The examination results for a student are reported at the relevant department.


For examinations that involve the writing of reports, in cases in which it can be assumed that the student has had access to other sources (such as during project work, writing essays, etc.), the material submitted must be prepared in accordance with principles for acceptable practice when referring to sources (references or quotations for which the source is specified) when the text, images, ideas, data, etc. of other people are used. It is also to be made clear whether the author has reused his or her own text, images, ideas, data, etc. from previous examinations, such as degree projects, project reports, etc. (this is sometimes known as “self-plagiarism”).

A failure to specify such sources may be regarded as attempted deception during examination.

Attempts to cheat

In the event of a suspected attempt by a student to cheat during an examination, or when study performance is to be assessed as specified in Chapter 10 of the Higher Education Ordinance, the examiner is to report this to the disciplinary board of the university. Possible consequences for the student are suspension from study and a formal warning. More information is available at https://www.student.liu.se/studenttjanster/lagar-regler-rattigheter?l=en.

Regulations (apply to LiU in its entirety)

The university is a government agency whose operations are regulated by legislation and ordinances, which include the Higher Education Act and the Higher Education Ordinance. In addition to legislation and ordinances, operations are subject to several policy documents. The Linköping University rule book collects currently valid decisions of a regulatory nature taken by the university board, the vice-chancellor and faculty/department boards.

LiU’s rule book for education at first-cycle and second-cycle levels is available at http://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/Innehall/Utbildning_pa_grund-_och_avancerad_niva

Regulary literature


Elif Erzan Topcu et.al., Development of electro-pneumatic fast switching valve and investigation of its characteristics MECHATRONICS 16 (2006) 365–378


M. Borghi, et. al., Influence of Notch Shape and Number of Notches on the Metering Characteristics of Hydraulic Spool Valves International Journal of Fluid Power August 2005



M. Taghizadeh, et. al., Modeling and identification of a solenoid valve for PWM control applications C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009) 131–140

Step 1 modell


Marko Simic, et. al., Modelling of Hydraulic Spool-Valves with Specially Designed Metering Edges Journal of Mechanical Engineering 60(2014)2, 77-83


Peiman Naseradinmousavi et. al., Nonlinear mathematical modeling of butterfly valves driven by solenoid actuators Applied Mathematical Modelling 35 (2011) 2324–2335

Step 2



Magnus Sethson, Repository https://magse13.gitlab-pages.liu.se/TMMS13/

Additional literature


Clarence W. de Silva, CRC Press, Mechatronics, An Integrated Approach

ISBN: 0-84931274-4

William Bolton, Pearson, Mechatronics, Electronic control systems in Mechanical and Electrical Engineering 6

ISBN: 978-1-292-07668-3

Note: The course matrix might contain more information in Swedish.

I = Introduce, U = Teach, A = Utilize
I U A Modules Comment
1.1 Knowledge of underlying mathematics and science (G1X level)
Numerical methods are introduced, math, physics, control theory and programming used. Electronics are extended.
1.2 Fundamental engineering knowledge (G1X level)

1.3 Further knowledge, methods, and tools in one or several subjects in engineering or natural science (G2X level)
Programming of electro hydraulic systems. Detailed studies using multiple simulation techniques.
1.4 Advanced knowledge, methods, and tools in one or several subjects in engineering or natural sciences (A1X level)
Electromagnetism, non-linear valves
1.5 Insight into current research and development work
Some research results on simulation techniques are used in the studies.
2.1 Analytical reasoning and problem solving
Solving problems by means of modern engineering software and scientific articles.
2.2 Experimentation, investigation, and knowledge discovery
Self paced experiments
2.3 System thinking
Simulation of (almost) complete machinery
2.4 Attitudes, thought, and learning
Methods for self checks
2.5 Ethics, equity, and other responsibilities
Responsibility for conclusions and calculations
3.1 Teamwork

3.2 Communications

3.3 Communication in foreign languages

4.1 External, societal, and environmental context
Energy analysis of electro hydraulic system
4.2 Enterprise and business context
Modular building blocks and lock-in effects
4.3 Conceiving, system engineering and management
Modelling of dynamic load conditions
4.4 Designing
Design of electro hydraulic multi-axis system
4.5 Implementing
Design of electro hydraulic multi-axis system
4.6 Operating

5.1 Societal conditions, including economic, social, and ecological aspects of sustainable development for knowledge development

5.2 Economic conditions for knowledge development

5.3 Identification of needs, structuring and planning of research or development projects

5.4 Execution of research or development projects

5.5 Presentation and evaluation of research or development projects


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