Biofuels for Transportation, 6 credits

Biofuels for Transportation, 6 hp

TKMJ31

Main field of study

Energy and Environmental Engineering Mechanical Engineering

Course level

Second cycle

Course type

Programme course

Examiner

Roozbeh Feiz Aghaei

Director of studies or equivalent

Carina Sundberg

Education components

Preliminary scheduled hours: 92 h
Recommended self-study hours: 68 h
ECV = Elective / Compulsory / Voluntary
Course offered for Semester Period Timetable module Language Campus ECV
6CKEB Chemical Biology, Master of Science in Engineering (Industrial Bioprocesses) 7 (Autumn 2023) 1 1 English Linköping E
6CDPU Design and Product Development, Master of Science in Engineering 7 (Autumn 2023) 1 1 English Linköping E
6CEMM Energy - Environment - Management, Master of Science in Engineering 9 (Autumn 2023) 1 1 English Linköping E
6CEMM Energy - Environment - Management, Master of Science in Engineering (Sustainable Business Development) 9 (Autumn 2023) 1 1 English Linköping E
6CEMM Energy - Environment - Management, Master of Science in Engineering (Technology for Sustainable Development) 9 (Autumn 2023) 1 1 English Linköping E
6CTBI Engineering Biology, Master of Science in Engineering (Industrial Bioprocesses) 7 (Autumn 2023) 1 1 English Linköping E
6CIEI Industrial Engineering and Management - International, Master of Science in Engineering, Chinese (Specialization Biological Resources and Sustainability) 7 (Autumn 2023) 1 1 English Linköping E
6CIEI Industrial Engineering and Management - International, Master of Science in Engineering, Chinese (Specialization Energy Engineering) 9 (Autumn 2023) 1 1 English Linköping E
6CIEI Industrial Engineering and Management - International, Master of Science in Engineering, French (Specialization Biological Resources and Sustainability) 7 (Autumn 2023) 1 1 English Linköping E
6CIEI Industrial Engineering and Management - International, Master of Science in Engineering, French (Specialization Energy Engineering) 9 (Autumn 2023) 1 1 English Linköping E
6CIEI Industrial Engineering and Management - International, Master of Science in Engineering, German (Specialization Biological Resources and Sustainability) 7 (Autumn 2023) 1 1 English Linköping E
6CIEI Industrial Engineering and Management - International, Master of Science in Engineering, German (Specialization Energy Engineering) 9 (Autumn 2023) 1 1 English Linköping E
6CIEI Industrial Engineering and Management - International, Master of Science in Engineering, Japanese (Specialization Biological Resources and Sustainability) 7 (Autumn 2023) 1 1 English Linköping E
6CIEI Industrial Engineering and Management - International, Master of Science in Engineering, Japanese (Specialization Energy Engineering) 9 (Autumn 2023) 1 1 English Linköping E
6CIEI Industrial Engineering and Management - International, Master of Science in Engineering, Spanish (Specialization Biological Resources and Sustainability) 7 (Autumn 2023) 1 1 English Linköping E
6CIEI Industrial Engineering and Management - International, Master of Science in Engineering, Spanish (Specialization Energy Engineering) 9 (Autumn 2023) 1 1 English Linköping E
6CIII Industrial Engineering and Management, Master of Science in Engineering (Biological Resources and Sustainability Specialization) 7 (Autumn 2023) 1 1 English Linköping E
6CIII Industrial Engineering and Management, Master of Science in Engineering (Specialization Energy Engineering) 9 (Autumn 2023) 1 1 English Linköping E
6CMMM Mechanical Engineering, Master of Science in Engineering 7 (Autumn 2023) 1 1 English Linköping E
6CMMM Mechanical Engineering, Master of Science in Engineering 9 (Autumn 2023) 1 1 English Linköping E
6CMMM Mechanical Engineering, Master of Science in Engineering (Energy and Environmental Engineering) 9 (Autumn 2023) 1 1 English Linköping E
6MMEC Mechanical Engineering, Master's Programme 3 (Autumn 2023) 1 1 English Linköping E
6MSUS Sustainability Engineering and Management, Master's Programme 3 (Autumn 2023) 1 1 English Linköping E

Main field of study

Energy and Environmental Engineering, Mechanical Engineering

Course level

Second cycle

Advancement level

A1X

Specific information

The course is not available for exchange students

Course offered for

  • Master of Science in Energy - Environment - Management
  • Master of Science in Industrial Engineering and Management
  • Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering
  • Master of Science in Industrial Engineering and Management - International
  • Master of Science in Design and Product Development
  • Master's Programme in Mechanical Engineering
  • Master's Programme in Sustainability Engineering and Management
  • Master of Science in Chemical Biology
  • Master of Science in Engineering Biology

Prerequisites

Courses: Large Technical Systems and Environment, Environmental Technology or equivalent.

Intended learning outcomes

Upon completion of the course, students will be: 

  • Aware of how established and emerging biofuels are produced and used;
  • Able to evaluate environmental impacts from material and energy flows in the life-cycle of biofuels;
  • Aware of the required technologies, infrastructures, and contextual factors for the use of biofuels;
  • Acquainted with the perspectives of different actors and contexts for sustainable production and use of biofuels;
  • Able to reflect upon how cooperation between different actors can lead to higher resource efficiency; for example through better integration of material and energy flows;
  • Acquainted with business dimensions related to biofuel production

Course content

Through this course students will learn about the characteristics of and challenges for the production and use of biofuels. The course will review the raw materials, production processes, application in vehicles, environmental impacts and the perspectives of different actors on the sustainability of biofuels. The course will consist of many aspects concerning biofuels production, development, and use. The content is diverse and relies on the theoretical and practical experience of experts from both the academia and the industry. Through lectures, seminars, study visits, and practical assignments students will learn more about:

  • Feedstocks for biofuel production
  • Production processes for biofuels
  • Vehicles and infrastructural requirements for biofuels
  • Environmental, economic and social aspects related to biofuel production and use
  • Drivers and conditions for biofuel development and markets

Teaching and working methods

The course consists of the following components:

  • Lectures
  • Guest lectures from industry and other research institutions
  • Study visits to biofuel production facilities
  • Practical exercises and project work
  • Take-home examination

 

Examination

PRA1Approved project assignments and approved seminars3 creditsU, G
UPG1At-home examination3 creditsU, 3, 4, 5

To pass this course and receive a final course grade the student needs to pass the take-home examination and project work (including assignments and mandatory workshops/seminars). 

Grades

Four-grade scale, LiU, U, 3, 4, 5

Other information

Supplementary courses: Industrial Ecology, Management Systems and Sustainability, Resource Efficient Products and Enviromental Systems Analysis - Project Course.

About teaching and examination language

The teaching language is presented in the Overview tab for each course. The examination language relates to the teaching language as follows: 

  • If teaching language is “Swedish”, the course as a whole could be given in Swedish, or partly in English. Examination language is Swedish, but parts of the examination can be in English.
  • If teaching language is “English”, the course as a whole is taught in English. Examination language is English.
  • If teaching language is “Swedish/English”, the course as a whole will be taught in English if students without prior knowledge of the Swedish language participate. Examination language is Swedish or English depending on teaching language.

Other

The course is conducted in a manner where both men's and women's experience and knowledge are made visible and developed. 

The planning and implementation of a course should correspond to the course syllabus. The course evaluation should therefore be conducted with the course syllabus as a starting point. 

The course is campus-based at the location specified for the course, unless otherwise stated under “Teaching and working methods”. Please note, in a campus-based course occasional remote sessions could be included.  

If special circumstances prevail, the vice-chancellor may in a special decision specify the preconditions for temporary deviations from this course syllabus, and delegate the right to take such decisions.

Department

Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling

Course literature

Regulary literature

Books

  • Baumann, H, and A-M Tillman, (2004) The Hitch Hiker’s Guide to LCA: An Orientation in Life Cycle Assessment Methodology and Application Studentlitteratur
    A self-guide to life-cycle assessment. Useful to read “Chapters 1 (LCA in a Nutshell), 3 (Goal and Scope Definition), and 4 (Inventory Analysis).

Additional literature

Books

  • Börjesson, P., Tufvesson, L., Lantz, M., (2010) Life cycle assessment of biofuels in Sweden Lund University
  • Dominik Rutz & Rainer Janssen, (2008) Biofuel Technology Handbook
    http://www.isibang.ac.in/~library/onlinerz/resources/Biofuel_Technology_Handbook_version2_D5.pdf
  • European Commission, (2015) The impact of biofuels on transport and the environment, and their connection with agricultural development in Europe
    ISBN: 9789282363294
    The book is ordered by European Commission and provides an overview of biofuels production and consumption and of related policies worldwide. It also contains analysis and discussion of key aspects affecting the overall sustainability of biofuels; including their impact on agricultural markets, emissions from indirect land-use change, and greenhouse gas emissions.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2861/775
  • IEA, (2004) Biofuels for Transport: An International Perspective Paris : OECD Publishing, 2004.
    ISBN: 9789264015135
    This book is published in 2004, so some of the information may be outdated. However, it contains useful information about the technical basics of biofuel production from several types of biomass (particularly chapter 2).
    https://www.cti2000.it/Bionett/All-2004-004%20IEA%20biofuels%20report.pdf
  • IEA Bioenergy: Task 41, (2020) Advanced Biofuels – Potential for Cost Reduction
    https://task39.sites.olt.ubc.ca/files/2020/02/Advanced-Biofuels-Potential-for-Cost-Reduction-Final-Draft.pdf
  • Mittelbach, M. and Remschmidt, C., (2006) Biodiesel: The Comprehensive Handbook Boersedruck GMBH
    Learn about biodiesel production processes.
  • Tuner, M., (2016) Combustion of Alternative Vehicle Fuels in Internal Combustion Engines
    Report within project “A pre-study to prepare for interdisciplinary research on future alternative transportation fuels”, financed by The Swedish Energy Agency
  • Worldwatch Institute, (2006) Biofuels for Transport: Global Potential and Implications for Energy and Agriculture

Articles

  • Börjesson, P., Good or bad bioethanol from a greenhouse gas perspective – What determines this? Applied Energy 2009
    doi:10.1016/j.apenergy
  • Börjesson, P., Mattiasson, B., Biogas as a resource-efficient vehicle fuel Trends in Biotechnology 2008
    doi:10.1016/j.tibtech
  • Müller-Langer, Franziska, Stefan Majer, and Sinéad O’Keeffe, Benchmarking Biofuels—a Comparison of Technical, Economic and Environmental Indicators Energy, Sustainability and Society 2014
    https://doi.org/10.1186/s13705-014-0020-x
Code Name Scope Grading scale
PRA1 Approved project assignments and approved seminars 3 credits U, G
UPG1 At-home examination 3 credits U, 3, 4, 5

To pass this course and receive a final course grade the student needs to pass the take-home examination and project work (including assignments and mandatory workshops/seminars). 

Course syllabus

A syllabus must be established for each course. The syllabus specifies the aim and contents of the course, and the prior knowledge that a student must have in order to be able to benefit from the course.

Timetabling

Courses are timetabled after a decision has been made for this course concerning its assignment to a timetable module. 

Interruption in and deregistration from a course

The LiU decision, Guidelines concerning confirmation of participation in education (Dnr LiU-2020-02256), states that interruptions in study are to be recorded in Ladok. Thus, all students who do not participate in a course for which they have registered must record the interruption, such that the registration on the course can be removed. Deregistration from or interrupting a course is carried out using a web-based form: https://www.lith.liu.se/for-studenter/kurskomplettering?l=en

Cancelled courses and changes to the course syllabus

Courses with few participants (fewer than 10) may be cancelled or organised in a manner that differs from that stated in the course syllabus. The Dean is to deliberate and decide whether a course is to be cancelled or changed from the course syllabus. 

Guidelines relating to examinations and examiners 

For details, see Guidelines for education and examination for first-cycle and second-cycle education at Linköping University, Dnr LiU-2020-04501  (http://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/VisaBeslut/917592).

An examiner must be employed as a teacher at LiU according to the LiU Regulations for Appointments, Dnr LiU-2021-01204 (https://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/VisaBeslut/622784). For courses in second-cycle, the following teachers can be appointed as examiner: Professor (including Adjunct and Visiting Professor), Associate Professor (including Adjunct), Senior Lecturer (including Adjunct and Visiting Senior Lecturer), Research Fellow, or Postdoc. For courses in first-cycle, Assistant Lecturer (including Adjunct and Visiting Assistant Lecturer) can also be appointed as examiner in addition to those listed for second-cycle courses. In exceptional cases, a Part-time Lecturer can also be appointed as an examiner at both first- and second cycle, see Delegation of authority for the Board of Faculty of Science and Engineering.

Forms of examination

Principles for examination

Written and oral examinations and digital and computer-based examinations are held at least three times a year: once immediately after the end of the course, once in August, and once (usually) in one of the re-examination periods. Examinations held at other times are to follow a decision of the faculty programme board.

Principles for examination scheduling for courses that follow the study periods:

  • courses given in VT1 are examined for the first time in March, with re-examination in June and August
  • courses given in VT2 are examined for the first time in May, with re-examination in August and October
  • courses given in HT1 are examined for the first time in October, with re-examination in January and August
  • courses given in HT2 are examined for the first time in January, with re-examination in March and in August.

The examination schedule is based on the structure of timetable modules, but there may be deviations from this, mainly in the case of courses that are studied and examined for several programmes and in lower grades (i.e. 1 and 2). 

Examinations for courses that the faculty programme board has decided are to be held in alternate years are held three times during the school year in which the course is given according to the principles stated above.

Examinations for courses that are cancelled or rescheduled such that they are not given in one or several years are held three times during the year that immediately follows the course, with examination scheduling that corresponds to the scheduling that was in force before the course was cancelled or rescheduled.

When a course, or a written examination (TEN, DIT, DAT), is given for the last time, the regular examination and two re-examinations will be offered. Thereafter, examinations are phased out by offering three examinations during the following academic year at the same times as the examinations in any substitute course. If there is no substitute course, three examinations will be offered during re-examination periods during the following academic year. Other examination times are decided by the faculty programme board. In all cases above, the examination is also offered one more time during the academic year after the following, unless the faculty programme board decides otherwise. In total, 6 re-examinations are offered, of which 2 are regular re-examinations. In the examination registration system, the examinations given for the penultimate time and the last time are denoted. 

If a course is given during several periods of the year (for programmes, or on different occasions for different programmes) the faculty programme board or boards determine together the scheduling and frequency of re-examination occasions.

Retakes of other forms of examination

Regulations concerning retakes of other forms of examination than written examinations and digital and computer-based examinations are given in the LiU guidelines for examinations and examiners, http://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/VisaBeslut/917592.

Course closure

For Decision on Routines for Administration of the Discontinuation of Educational Programs, Freestanding Courses and Courses in Programs, see DNR LiU-2021-04782. After a decision on closure and after the end of the discontinuation period, the students are referred to a replacement course (or similar) according to information in the course syllabus or programme syllabus. If a student has passed some part/parts of a closed program course but not all, and there is an at least partially replacing course, an assessment of crediting can be made. Any crediting of course components is made by the examiner.

Registration for examination

In order to take an written, digital or computer-based examination, registration in advance is mandatory, see decision in the university’s rule book https://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/VisaBeslut/622682. An unregistered student can thus not be offered a place. The registration is done at the Student Portal or in the LiU-app during the registration period. The registration period opens 30 days before the date of the examination and closes 10 days before the date of the examination. Candidates are informed of the location of the examination by email, four days in advance. 

Code of conduct for students during examinations

Details are given in a decision in the university’s rule book: http://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/VisaBeslut/622682.

Retakes for higher grade

Students at the Institute of Technology at LiU have the right to retake written examinations and digital and computer-based examinations in an attempt to achieve a higher grade. This is valid for all examination components with code “TEN”, “DIT” and "DAT". The same right may not be exercised for other examination components, unless otherwise specified in the course syllabus.

A retake is not possible on courses that are included in an issued degree diploma. 

Grades

The grades that are preferably to be used are Fail (U), Pass (3), Pass not without distinction (4) and Pass with distinction (5). 

  • Grades U, 3, 4, 5 are to be awarded for courses that have written or digital examinations.
  • Grades Fail (U) and Pass (G) may be awarded for courses with a large degree of practical components such as laboratory work, project work and group work.
  • Grades Fail (U) and Pass (G) are to be used for degree projects and other independent work.

Examination components

The following examination components and associated module codes are used at the Faculty of Science and Engineering:

  • Grades U, 3, 4, 5 are to be awarded for written examinations (TEN) and digital examinations (DIT).
  • Examination components for which the grades Fail (U) and Pass (G) may be awarded are laboratory work (LAB), project work (PRA), preparatory written examination (KTR), digital preparatory written examination (DIK), oral examination (MUN), computer-based examination (DAT), home assignment (HEM), and assignment (UPG).
  • Students receive grades either Fail (U) or Pass (G) for other examination components in which the examination criteria are satisfied principally through active attendance such as tutorial group (BAS) or examination item (MOM).
  • Grades Fail (U) and Pass (G) are to be used for the examination components Opposition (OPPO) and Attendance at thesis presentation (AUSK) (i.e. part of the degree project).

In general, the following applies:

  • Mandatory course components must be scored and given a module code.
  • Examination components that are not scored, cannot be mandatory. Hence, it is voluntary to participate in these examinations, and the voluntariness must be clearly stated. Additionally, if there are any associated conditions to the examination component, these must be clearly stated as well.
  • For courses with more than one examination component with grades U,3,4,5, it shall be clearly stated how the final grade is weighted.

For mandatory components, the following applies (in accordance with the LiU Guidelines for education and examination for first-cycle and second-cycle education at Linköping University, http://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/VisaBeslut/917592): 

  • If special circumstances prevail, and if it is possible with consideration of the nature of the compulsory component, the examiner may decide to replace the compulsory component with another equivalent component.

For possibilities to alternative forms of examinations, the following applies (in accordance with the LiU Guidelines for education and examination for first-cycle and second-cycle education at Linköping University, http://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/VisaBeslut/917592): 

  • If the LiU coordinator for students with disabilities has granted a student the right to an adapted examination for a written examination in an examination hall, the student has the right to it.
  • If the coordinator has recommended for the student an adapted examination or alternative form of examination, the examiner may grant this if the examiner assesses that it is possible, based on consideration of the course objectives.
  • An examiner may also decide that an adapted examination or alternative form of examination if the examiner assessed that special circumstances prevail, and the examiner assesses that it is possible while maintaing the objectives of the course.

Reporting of examination results

The examination results for a student are reported at the relevant department.

Plagiarism

For examinations that involve the writing of reports, in cases in which it can be assumed that the student has had access to other sources (such as during project work, writing essays, etc.), the material submitted must be prepared in accordance with principles for acceptable practice when referring to sources (references or quotations for which the source is specified) when the text, images, ideas, data, etc. of other people are used. It is also to be made clear whether the author has reused his or her own text, images, ideas, data, etc. from previous examinations, such as degree projects, project reports, etc. (this is sometimes known as “self-plagiarism”).

A failure to specify such sources may be regarded as attempted deception during examination.

Attempts to cheat

In the event of a suspected attempt by a student to cheat during an examination, or when study performance is to be assessed as specified in Chapter 10 of the Higher Education Ordinance, the examiner is to report this to the disciplinary board of the university. Possible consequences for the student are suspension from study and a formal warning. More information is available at https://www.student.liu.se/studenttjanster/lagar-regler-rattigheter?l=en.

Regulations (apply to LiU in its entirety)

The university is a government agency whose operations are regulated by legislation and ordinances, which include the Higher Education Act and the Higher Education Ordinance. In addition to legislation and ordinances, operations are subject to several policy documents. The Linköping University rule book collects currently valid decisions of a regulatory nature taken by the university board, the vice-chancellor and faculty/department boards.

LiU’s rule book for education at first-cycle and second-cycle levels is available at http://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/Innehall/Utbildning_pa_grund-_och_avancerad_niva

Regulary literature

Books

Baumann, H, and A-M Tillman, (2004) The Hitch Hiker’s Guide to LCA: An Orientation in Life Cycle Assessment Methodology and Application Studentlitteratur

A self-guide to life-cycle assessment. Useful to read “Chapters 1 (LCA in a Nutshell), 3 (Goal and Scope Definition), and 4 (Inventory Analysis).

Additional literature

Books

Börjesson, P., Tufvesson, L., Lantz, M., (2010) Life cycle assessment of biofuels in Sweden Lund University
Dominik Rutz & Rainer Janssen, (2008) Biofuel Technology Handbook

http://www.isibang.ac.in/~library/onlinerz/resources/Biofuel_Technology_Handbook_version2_D5.pdf

European Commission, (2015) The impact of biofuels on transport and the environment, and their connection with agricultural development in Europe

ISBN: 9789282363294

The book is ordered by European Commission and provides an overview of biofuels production and consumption and of related policies worldwide. It also contains analysis and discussion of key aspects affecting the overall sustainability of biofuels; including their impact on agricultural markets, emissions from indirect land-use change, and greenhouse gas emissions.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2861/775

IEA, (2004) Biofuels for Transport: An International Perspective Paris : OECD Publishing, 2004.

ISBN: 9789264015135

This book is published in 2004, so some of the information may be outdated. However, it contains useful information about the technical basics of biofuel production from several types of biomass (particularly chapter 2).

https://www.cti2000.it/Bionett/All-2004-004%20IEA%20biofuels%20report.pdf

IEA Bioenergy: Task 41, (2020) Advanced Biofuels – Potential for Cost Reduction

https://task39.sites.olt.ubc.ca/files/2020/02/Advanced-Biofuels-Potential-for-Cost-Reduction-Final-Draft.pdf

Mittelbach, M. and Remschmidt, C., (2006) Biodiesel: The Comprehensive Handbook Boersedruck GMBH

Learn about biodiesel production processes.

Tuner, M., (2016) Combustion of Alternative Vehicle Fuels in Internal Combustion Engines

Report within project “A pre-study to prepare for interdisciplinary research on future alternative transportation fuels”, financed by The Swedish Energy Agency

Worldwatch Institute, (2006) Biofuels for Transport: Global Potential and Implications for Energy and Agriculture

Articles

Börjesson, P., Good or bad bioethanol from a greenhouse gas perspective – What determines this? Applied Energy 2009

doi:10.1016/j.apenergy

Börjesson, P., Mattiasson, B., Biogas as a resource-efficient vehicle fuel Trends in Biotechnology 2008

doi:10.1016/j.tibtech

Müller-Langer, Franziska, Stefan Majer, and Sinéad O’Keeffe, Benchmarking Biofuels—a Comparison of Technical, Economic and Environmental Indicators Energy, Sustainability and Society 2014

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13705-014-0020-x

Note: The course matrix might contain more information in Swedish.

I = Introduce, U = Teach, A = Utilize
I U A Modules Comment
1. DISCIPLINARY KNOWLEDGE AND REASONING
1.1 Knowledge of underlying mathematics and science (G1X level)
X
UPG1

                            
1.2 Fundamental engineering knowledge (G1X level)
X
UPG1

                            
1.3 Further knowledge, methods, and tools in one or several subjects in engineering or natural science (G2X level)
X
X
X
PRA1
UPG1
Biofuels types and main production and use pathways; broad sustainability perspecive on biofuels (processes, performance, development);
1.4 Advanced knowledge, methods, and tools in one or several subjects in engineering or natural sciences (A1X level)
X
X
X
PRA1
UPG1
Biofuels in the emerging biobased economy; sustainability assessment of biofuels from systems perspective (including LCA)
1.5 Insight into current research and development work
X
X
PRA1
UPG1
Scientific papers; teachers include their own research experience; guest lecturers from industry
2. PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL SKILLS AND ATTRIBUTES
2.1 Analytical reasoning and problem solving
X
X
PRA1
modelling; quantitative and qualitative analysis; uncertainty management; solution and recommendations
2.2 Experimentation, investigation, and knowledge discovery
X
X
PRA1
UPG1
Suverying printed literature; hypothesis and defence (sustainablity of the studied biofuel)
2.3 System thinking
X
X
PRA1
UPG1
Holistic thinking; emergence and integration of systems; prioritization and focus; trade-offs and balanced solutions
2.4 Attitudes, thought, and learning
X
PRA1
Critical thinking; knowledge interaction; time and resource management
2.5 Ethics, equity, and other responsibilities
X
PRA1
Ethics and integrity; professional behaviour; equity and diversity
3. INTERPERSONAL SKILLS: TEAMWORK AND COMMUNICATION
3.1 Teamwork
X
PRA1
forming effective teams; team operation; technical and multi-desciplinary team work
3.2 Communications
X
PRA1
verbal and written communication, oral presentation (opponentship, poster, poster session)
3.3 Communication in foreign languages
X
PRA1
Communication in English
4. CONCEIVING, DESIGNING, IMPLEMENTING AND OPERATING SYSTEMS IN THE ENTERPRISE, SOCIETAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT
4.1 External, societal, and environmental context
X
X
PRA1
UPG1
The main focus of the course (impact of engineering on society and evironment, historical and cultural context, contemporary issues and values, developing a global perspective, sustainability and need for sustainable development)
4.2 Enterprise and business context
X
UPG1
How different actors perceive their role in society and define their goals and strategies (e.g. biofuel producers) 
4.3 Conceiving, system engineering and management
X
PRA1
Understanding needs and setting goals; systems perspective
4.4 Designing
X
X
PRA1
UPG1
Sustainable feedstock and production processes for biofuels
4.5 Implementing
X
X
PRA1
UPG1
How to move towards implementation of sustainable biofuels production systems
4.6 Operating
X
X
PRA1
UPG1
Biofuels from life-cycle perspective 
5. PLANNING, EXECUTION AND PRESENTATION OF RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS WITH RESPECT TO SCIENTIFIC AND SOCIETAL NEEDS AND REQUIREMENTS
5.1 Societal conditions, including economic, social, and ecological aspects of sustainable development for knowledge development
X
X
PRA1
UPG1

                            
5.2 Economic conditions for knowledge development

                            
5.3 Identification of needs, structuring and planning of research or development projects
X
X
PRA1
Specifying project's purpose and goal with respect to sustainablity and other needs
5.4 Execution of research or development projects
X
X
PRA1
Multidesciplinary project work
5.5 Presentation and evaluation of research or development projects
X
X
PRA1
Presentation of new knowledge in a scientific context (poster session), evaluation of the work process in the project (opponentship)

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